12,000 terrestrial hectares and 3,000 marine hectares that make up one of the areas with the greatest diversity of species throughout Colombia and South America.
The Tayrona National Natural Park is home to hundreds of species that daily visit the place in total freedom, taking into account that because of their great occupation many of these animals are hidden from human presence, the months that can be seen are May and September.
- LAND FAUNA: Within the terrestrial species we can highlight exotic and dangerous animals as well as animals that we can see more easily as: Jaguar, Tigrillo, Ocelot, Ñeques, Zaínos, Guartinajas, Fox Dogs, Anteater, Mico de Noche, Howler Monkey, Squirrels, among others.
- AEREAL: Tayrona Park is ideal for bird watching with more than 350 species that inhabit this place, the place is visited annually by groups that practice this activity in a professional manner. The place is a refuge for every bird that immigrates through South America and many who live here, we can highlight the typical Caribbean or other more strange, Cóndor, the lonely eagle, the white eagle, Papa Mosca Real, Paujil, Guacamayas, Pavón Azul , Sephia Among others … it is worth mentioning that the list of the avian species that we find in PNNT has not yet been completed.
- MARINE FAUNA: We can not forget the other 3,000 marine hectares of the PNNT, which has been invaded by species from other waters of the world such as the famous and dangerous Lionfish. The characteristics of the marine life of the Tayrona has not been greatly altered or deeply studied, because having such dangerous waters is very difficult to access but it has been determined that there are more than 50 species of coral reefs which is an excellent wave barrier and refuge for many species of fish. This makes marine life very rich. In the waters surrounding the PNNT we will find: snappers, groupers, moray eels, tortoise gogó, hawksbill turtle, parrotfish, among others. We emphasize that the Park is the destination every 6 months of the turtles that travel around the world and arrive to deposit their eggs for the conservation of their species.
The Tayrona National Park is located in the northern and lower part of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, which is conformed by humid and dry forests of low hills, cliffs and lots of beaches. We can immediately observe the white of its sands and the blue of its beaches that correspond to the Caribbean Sea. The climatic conditions of the Tayrona National Natural Park are ideal for a great diverse formation of vegetation, from cactus to immense trees. Vegetation of dry zones, of sweet and salty wetlands and many more cover like a green mantle the whole park, we include in this list the fruit trees.
Within this diversity we find: El Trupillo, Los Aromos, Dividivi, Cardón de Higo, Naranjo, Coconut Palm, Jobo, Mango Tree, Soursop Tree, CARACOLI Tree, Icaco, Orchids.
The humidity the PNNT helps to the conservation of the humid ground in the seasons of little precipitation of water which preserves the green throughout the year.
At present, the Tayrona National Park is not inhabited by any of the 4 ethnic groups that are located in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, of which the Tayrona Park is part of its lower zone.
The four indigenous ethnic groups (Kogui, Arhuaco, Wiwa and Kankuamo) have decided to settle in the high Sierra Nevada by the high amount of younger brothers (as we are called all people who are outside their community) but this does not mean that the Tayrona Park is not part of its shelter or ancestral territory. In it, sacred places are found where for a long time they have practiced their rituals and ceremonies and which should be protected and respected as one of the most important cultural heritages of humanity.
Koguis: Direct descendants of the Tayronas since the Spanish era. Their beliefs affirm that they are our older brothers and they live in the center of the world (the Sierra Nevada), for this reason they call us the younger brothers who were banished long ago.
They are still established in the Sierra Nevada and throughout the territory it covers as Santa Marta, Valledupar, Riohacha etc. The Kogui have also been influenced by us, their younger brothers, but they have not been relevant enough to put aside their language and customs.
Kankuamos: It is the group that most lost its identity and culture, it was very influenced by civilization which has made its mother tongue in danger of disappearing. They have been established geographically in sectors such as Los Kankuamo, Chemesquemena, Atánquez, Guatapuri and La Mina
Arhuacos: They like to inhabit areas near the rivers for their survival, especially those on the accidental side of the Sierra Nevada. Their knowledge about nature is outstanding, they live much more organized and are responsible for taking care of the world and its cosmic cycle.
Although most of this ethnic group lives on high, others have decided to come to civilization to learn from new cultures and use that knowledge to move forward and preserve their culture and legacy.
Wiwa (warm): Set in the warmer and lower areas of the sierra since its specialty is agriculture for family and commercial consumption among the 4 ethnic groups and with the new civilization. But they are also recognized for producing fique, which is used in the creation of backpacks and hammocks.
These 4 ethnicities have as a common characteristic, that for them the center of the world is the Sierra Nevada, more specifically the snowy peaks, adding to this, the constant consumption of coca to support the arduous walks and as part of their daily and ceremonial rituals.